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The following Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology note (POSTnote) summarises the latest data on scale of use, safety and quality of electronic cigarettes, and their value as a stop smoking tool. It also explores the implications of the new EU Tobacco Products Directive and regulatory approaches in the UK.
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POSTnote Briefing Endnotes

1 Tobacco Advisory Group of the Royal College of Physicians. Nicotine without smoke: tobacco harm reduction. Royal College of Physicians, 2016
2 McNeill et al. E-cigarettes: an evidence update. Public Health England, 2015
3 Filippidis et al. Two-year trends and predictors of e-cigarette use in 27 European Union member states. Tobacco Control, 24 May 2016
4 Stimson et al. Disruptive innovations: the rise of the electronic cigarette International Journal of Drug Policy Vol 25, 2014
5 Fagerstrom et al. E-cigarettes: a disruptive technology that revolutionizes our field? Nicotine & Tobacco Research Vol 17 Issue 2, 2015.
6 McRobbie et al. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction (review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2014 Issue 12.
7 Directive 2014/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, April 2014
8 The Tobacco and Related Products Regulations, 2016
9 The Tobacco and Related Product Regulations, House of Lords Hansard, Vol 771, 10 May 2016
10 House of Lords Business. Motions relating to Delegated Legislation, 19 April 2016
11 Tobacco and Related Products Regulations, House of Lords Hansard, Vol 773, 4 July 2016
12 Statistics on Smoking, England. Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2016
13 Tobacco use: key points. Scottish Public Health Observatory, 2016
14 Tobacco and Health in Wales. Public Health Observatory Wales, 2012
15 Smoking. Northern Ireland Government Services accessed 8 August 2016
16 ASH factsheet: Smoking Statistics: Who Smokes and How Much. February 2016
17 Smoking Toolkit Study: top line findings. STS140721. May 2016
18 HMRC Tobacco Bulletin. April 2016
19 ASH factsheet: The Economics of Tobacco. December 2015.
20 Mayer. How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century. Arch Toxicol Vol 88, 2014
21 McEwen et al. Electronic cigarettes: a briefing for Stop Smoking Services National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training, 2016
22 Zhu et al. Four hundred and sixty brands of e-cigarettes and counting: implications for product regulation. Tobacco Control Vol 23, 2014
23 Smoking Toolkit Study: trends in electronic cigarette use in England STS140122. May 2016.
24 ASH factsheet: Use of electronic cigarettes (vapourisers) among adults in Great Britain, May 2016
25 Bauld et al. E-cigarette uptake among UK youth: experimentation, but little or no regular use in non-smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2016
26 Ford et al. Adolescents’ responses to the promotion and flavouring of e-cigarettes. Int J Public Health Vol 61, 2016
27 Eadie et al. E-cigarette marketing in UK stores: an observational audit and retailers’ views. BMJ Open, 2015
28 E-cigarettedirect. 12 vaping stats & trends for the informed e-cig retailer January 2016
29 Bauld et al. E-cigarette uptake and marketing. Public Health England, 2014.
30 Fergus. Big Tobacco and heat not burn – friend or foe? February 2016
31 Farsalinos & Polosa. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco substitutes: a review of the literature. Ther Adv Drug Saf Vol 5 Issue 2, 2014
32 Burstyn. Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks. BMC Public Health, 2014
33 ASH factsheet: Smoking Statistics, November 2015
34 Smoking Toolkit Study: e-cigarette use for quitting smoking: England 2015. STS120722
35 Opportunities and Challenges: What does the future hold? Proprietary Association of Great Britain Annual Review, 2015
36 Chen et al. E-Cigarette Design Preference and Smoking Cessation: A U.S. Population Study. Am J Prev Med, 2016
37 McRobbie et al. Study protocol: A randomised controlled trial to examine the efficacy of e-cigarettes compared with nicotine replacement therapy, when used within the UK stop smoking service. April 2015
38 Hiscock et al. Views from the Coalface: What Do English Stop Smoking Service Personnel Think about E-Cigarettes? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Vol 12 Issue 2, 2015
39 McEwen et al. Smoking cessation: a briefing for midwifery staff (2nd edition). National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training, May 2015
40 Smoking in Pregnancy Challenge Group, 2016
41 Foulds et al. Development of a questionnaire for assessing dependence upon electronic cigarettes among a large sample of ex-smoking e-cigarette users. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Vol 17 Issue 2, 2015
42 Health and Social Care Information Centre. Statistics on NHS Stop Smoking Services in England – April 2014 to March 2015
43 Taylor et al. Will smoking meet its match? UCL School of Pharmacy, 2015
44 Barbry et al. Smoking in public places. House of Commons Library, 27 March 2015
45 Unison. Health & safety information sheet: smoking at work. March 2015
46 Public Health England, 2016. Use of e-cigarettes in public places and workplaces
48 British Medical Association. Call to ban e-cigarettes in public places. 26 June 2014
49 E-cigarettes. British Medical Association, May 2016
50 Donnelly. Ban e-cigarettes in bars and restaurants, leading doctors say. Daily Telegraph, 23 June 2016
51 National Assembly for Wales Record of Proceedings, 16 March 2016.
52 E-liquid UK Store. Places where vaping (e-cigarettes) is banned in the UK. 9 September 2015
53 Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. Ban on e-cigarettes lifted to help smokers give up. 11 May 2016
54 Andrew Selous MP. Smoking in prisons. 29 September 2015
55 Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. E-cigarettes: regulations for consumer products. 27 May 2016
56 Totally Wicked. Press Statement: European Court Rules in Totally Wicked Legal Challenge to Article 20 of the Tobacco Products Directive. 4 May 2016
57 ASH briefing. The impact of the EU Tobacco Products Directive on e-cigarette regulation in the UK. March 2016
58 Cancer Research UK. Electronic cigarettes. March 2015
59 Caponetto et al. What to consider when regulating electronic cigarettes: Pros, cons and unintended consequences. International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol 26, 2015
60 Bates. What is wrong with the Tobacco Products Directive for vapour products? 22 May 2015
61 British Standards Institute. PAS 54115:2015. Vaping products, including electronic cigarettes, e-liquids, e-shisha and directly-related products. Manufacture, importation, testing and labelling – Guide. July 2015
62 Bates. Who cares about a few thousand dead? Defending EU limits on the strength of nicotine e-liquids. 4 May 2016
63 New Nicotine Alliance & Bates. Letter to Department of Health. 29th April 2016
64 Committee of Advertising Practice Ltd. UK Code of Non-broadcast Advertising, Sales Promotion and Direct Marketing (edition 12) Section 22: electronic cigarettes. 2014
65 Committee of Advertising Practice Ltd. The UK Code of Broadcast Advertising (edition 1) Section 32: electronic cigarettes. 2014
66 Health (Tobacco, Nicotine etc. and Care) (Scotland) Bill. April 2016
67 Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Licensing Procedure for Electronic Cigarettes and Other Nicotine Containing Products (NCPs) as Medicines
68 Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. UK Public Assessment Report e-Voke 10 & 15mg Electronic Inhaler. November 2015
69 Britton & Bogdanovica. Electronic Cigarettes. Public Health England, 2014.
70 Jakes. The pleasure principle. 18 February 2016